Overall, the six-carbon sugar molecule glucose is converted to carbon dioxide and water in the presence of oxygen to yield 36 to 38 molecules of ATP (adenosine triphosphate, the nature-wide "energy currency" of cells). The three main stages of Cellular respiration are glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain (Miller, Levine 2002). Start studying 4 Stages of Cellular Respiration. Copyright 2020 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, All Rights Reserved. Two ATP molecul… A. Proteins in the ETC use energy from released electrons to shuttle H+ against concentration gradient into the inner membrane space. Here are three important steps of cellular respiration. In glycolysis, glucose—a six-carbon sugar—undergoes a series of chemical transformations. The electrons carried by NADH and FADH2 are pulled from these molecules by enzymes in the mitochondrial membrane and used to drive a process called oxidative phosphorylation, wherein an electrochemical gradient driven by the released of the aforementioned electrons powers the addition of phosphate molecules to ADP to produce ATP. Krebs Cycle (Let’s make some carbon dioxide and get ready for the ETC!) Aboard the Electron Transport Train. The cellular respiration process includes four basic stages or steps: Glycolysis, which occurs in all organisms, prokaryotic and eukaryotic; the bridge reaction, which stets the stage for aerobic respiration; and the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain, oxygen-dependent pathways that occur in sequence in the mitochondria. The steps of cellular respiration do not happen at the same speed, and the same set of reactions may proceed at different rates in the same organism at different times. More about Kevin and links to his professional work can be found at www.kemibe.com. The fourth and final stage of cellular respiration is where the major energy "creation" is done. 2. Glucose is broken down in the cytoplasm of the cell during the glycolysis stage. Cellular Respiration gives both plant and animal cells the useable energy, aka ATP, that they need to do stuff. The three stages of cellular respiration include glycolysis, electron transport chain and citric acid cycle, also known as Krebs cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle. Glycolysis is the process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid, which is a three-carbon compound. Glycolysis literally means "splitting sugars," and it is the 10-step process by which sugars are released for energy. In this reaction, which occurs in the mitochondria, the two pyruvate molecules from glycolysis are converted into two molecules of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA), with two molecules of CO2 produced as metabolic waste. The remaining carbon compound is broken up into two molecules of pyruvate. Coming from the Greek word “ glyk ” which means “ sweet ” and “ lysis ” which means “ dissolution “, glycolysis is the breakdown of one … 1. There are three stages of cellular respiration. As the name implies, however, there would be no way to get from glycolysis to the aerobic reactions beyond without it. Cellular respiration is the sum of the various biochemical means that eukaryotic organisms employ to extract energy from food, specifically glucose molecules. Glucose is broken down to pyruvic acid. Stage 1 of cellular respiration Location: cytoplasm What happens: glucose is broken down into 2 molecules of pyruvate (2 3-carbon compounds) Reactant: 1Glucose Products: 2Pyruvates Produces: 2 ATP, 2 NADH (net) This is the overall equation: C6H12O6(glucose) + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ≈38 ATP, What Makes Up David Fincher’s Signature Directing Style, 5 Reasons Why Pets Can Improve Your Mental Health, 5 Lessons From My First Year of Podcasting, The 2 ATP are used to split the glucose into, If the cell has access to oxygen (aka is in an, [caption id=”attachment_876" align=”aligncenter” width=”525"]. In the "investment phase" of the process, two ATP are consumed as two phosphates are added to the glucose derivative before it is split into two three-carbon compounds. Two more hydrogen atoms are removed and bond with the oxygen to form water. Oxidative phosphorylation . These molecules are needed for the electron transport chain, and in the course of their synthesis, four more CO2 molecules are shed from the cell as waste. Kevin Beck holds a bachelor's degree in physics with minors in math and chemistry from the University of Vermont. 3 Simple Stages in Cellular Respiration and How They Work 1. 1. These are transformed into two molecules of pyruvate, 2 NADH and four ATP for a net gain of two ATP. Those stages are glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport. A hydrogen ion with two electrons is removed from each of these compounds and attached to a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide to form NADH.