45, 2013, p. 34-35. Les bâtiments du fonctionnalisme offrent beaucoup d'espace pour vivre. She found the solution in history read, in a very Marxist-Leninist way, as a progressive succession of the stages of development. In this lesson, we are going to explore the history and use of this style and check out a few great examples. Aujourd'hui, de nombreux hôtels sont construits de cette façon. It may be to encourage meditative reflection on the human experience, to rally those of shared political mentality, or to produce an emotional reaction, but this purpose is defined purely by the art. According to Utenova, the domed silhouette of the building convincingly embeds it “both in specific urban environment [of Alma-Ata] and in the specific historical and cultural context, thanks to its associative coordination with the multi-domed compositions of traditional monumental architecture.”28 It is unclear precisely what she is referring to here, since Alma-Ata had no pre-modern Islamic architecture at all, while the shape of the Arasan domes is hardly similar to the domes of Turkestan or Taraz, the two main historic settlements and religious centers of pre-modern Kazakhstan. 20Possibly the most impressive exercise in postmodernist criticism in Soviet Central Asia was the article “In Search of the National Form” published by the Kazakh scholar Sholpan Utenova in 1988.25 The focus of Utenova’s article was the contemporary architecture of Soviet Kazakhstan. She presents the medical spa Arasan as an example of organic unity between the traditional form of the dome and a socially useful function, which constitutes the form’s socialist content. Figure 3: Moisei Ginzburg’s Dead Orient (mertvyi vostok). Basically, all the functional elements supposedly specific to Central Asia could be found as far away as in Britain, the Unites States, West Germany, and Japan. 7For Ginzburg, the stereotypically retrograde and delusional Orient of mosques and madrasas was dead; but next to it was something very much alive, something to learn from—the traditional urban fabric (fig. 2The stated aim of both distinctions was to draw a clear line between the accepted and the unwanted channels for borrowing national, regional, or local formal motives for contemporary architecture. ), 1985). It is a real mystery how and why in 1982, with Leonid Brezhnev still alive and the state being the only commissioner and consumer of architectural design and production, Kim felt the need to account for the problem that just ten years later, with the collapse of the Soviet Union, completely redefined his profession. A partir del análisis crítico de dos distinciones intelectuales, en primer lugar entre formas arquitectónicas nacionales y contenido (o esencia) socialista, en segundo lugar entre carácter nacional y carácter internacional de la arquitectura socialista, este artículo restituye las singulares condiciones que rigen la profesión de arquitecto en la URSS: los arquitectos ejercían en un contexto determinado por la imposibilidad de obtener encargos privados, por la búsqueda de una objetividad estética, por un interés creciente por la conservación del patrimonio y por la mutación progresiva de una construcción nacional socialista controlada hacia un nacionalismo brutal en los años 1990. Los arquitectos y críticos soviéticos, conscientes de la insistencia del gobierno sobre la persistencia esencial de las tradiciones constructivas regionales y étcnica, y de la necesidad de incorporarlas en el nuevo estilo socialista de la arquitectura en Asia central, han utilizado la búsqueda ideológica de formas nacionales como medio de expresar su desconfianza creciente hacia un funcionalismo prefabricado y como oposición a una versión local del estilo estaliniano. Cette formulation n’est pas si évidente à définir, car elle est matière à confusion et à controverse à l’intérieur de la profession, particulièrement en ce qui concerne le Mouvement moderne.