These compounds, known as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), are reduced in the process. In the active state, the α protein exchanges GDP for GTP and dissociates from the βã subunits. MCQ 09: Microbial Physiology @. Glutamate is an amide not an amino acid because it contains an extra NH2. Conversion of nitrates into nitroge…, The oxidation of ammonium to nitrate by chemolithotrophs. Complex is similar to the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex in the TCA cycle. What groups listed below have true cell walls? Which of the following is the most important structure related to microbial attachment to cells? MCQ 11: Agricultural Microbiology @. The enzyme cuts at specific nucleotide sequences (restriction sites). Bacterial Physiology I&II. 53 terms. It is a complex consisting of of 3 enzymes and 5 cofactors. Any step where NADH is formed is a rate limiting step. removes primers and fills in gaps between newly synthesized okazaki segments. bacteria that forms nodules on roots of legumes that fix N for the plants; the plants provide energy and anaerobic conditions for nitrogenase. This fermentation pathway, which is known as the "Bifidobacterium shunt" or the "fructose-6-phosphate pathway" yields 3 mols of acetate and 2 mols of lactate for 2 mols of glucose, with production of 5 mols of ATP. They grow in a 5' -> 3' direction. aerobic glycolysis pathway- results in ATP production though glucose being converted to pyruvic acid and then to CO2 and H2O. Biochem Chapter 18 ... 29 terms. 74 terms. Enolase, also known as phosphopyruvate hydratase, is a metalloenzyme responsible for the catalysis of the conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PG) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), the ninth and penultimate step of glycolysis. processes that generate TCA cycle intermediates from any number of other molecules. Its a cycle reaction that uses ATP. This process is performed by bacterial species such as Pseudomonas and Clostridium in anaerobic conditions. ammonia switch-off is the immediate inactivation of nitrogen fixation that occurs when a superior nitrogen source is encountered. A modified tricarboxylic acid cycle in which the decarboxylation reactions are bypasses by the enzyme isocitrate lyase and malate synthase; it is used to convert acetyl-CoA to succinate and other metabolites. The GTP-bound α subunit propagates the signal. allostericall activated by low cellular energy chage; inactivated by high charge; functions to make more alpha-ketoglutarate & NADH, mainly in liver. The electron transport "chain" is a series of electron carriers in the membrane of the mitochondria in eukaryotic cells. It is a component of NITROGENASE along with molybdoferredoxin and is active in nitrogen fixation. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is responsible for the pyruvate decarboxylation step that links glycolysis to the citric acid cycle. Through a series of intermediate steps, several compounds capable of storing "high energy" electrons are produced along with two ATP molecules. [5] It is important for the ammonia to be converted to nitrates because accumulated nitrites are toxic to plant life. glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, gluconolactonase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, The main activity of this enzyme appears to be the reduction of ferredoxin using the oxidation of pyruvate as the electron source. Highly endergonic process, constructive metabolism; the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones. These reduced forms carry the "high energy" electrons to the next stage. In the process, a gradient is formed, and ultimately ATP is produced. Nitrogenase inactivated irreversibly by molecular oxygen destroys nitrogenase. 26 terms. Quizlet Live. When it is time to r…, 1. Physiology- Multiple Choice Questions (with answers) Syllabus: - Homeostasis - Cell and transport - Nervous system - Tissue and membranes - Mus... View more. the continuous sequence of events by which atmospheric nitrogen and nitrogenous compounds in the soil are converted, as by nitrification and nitrogen fixation, into substances that can be utilized by green plants, the substances returning to the air and soil as a result of the decay of the plants and denitrification. encodes Nitrogenase and most associated regulatory proteins. They fix nitrogen from dinitrogen (N2) in the air using the enzyme nitrogenase, in order to provide the cells in the filament with nitrogen for biosynthesis. Quizlet Learn. OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR. A. algae B. mycoplasmas C. Gram-positive bacteria D. fungi E. protozoans 2. Energy charge describe the energy status of a cell that control the metabolism of ATP. The Citric Acid Cycle or Krebs Cycle begins after the two molecules of the three carbon sugar produced in glycolysis are converted to a slightly different compound (acetyl CoA). Features. The Gibbs free energy is the maximum amount of non-expansion work that can be extracted from a closed system; this maximum can be attained only in a completely reversible process. Through a series of reactions, the "high energy" electrons are passed to oxygen. Microbiology protein secretion. In this biological process, nitrite and ammonium are converted directly into molecular nitrogen (N2) gas. Thioredoxin is then used as a reductant to reduce sulfate to sulfite, and then NADPH reduces sulfite to sulfide. When a system changes from a well-defined initial state to a well-defined final state, the Gibbs free energy ΔG equals the work exchanged by the system with its surroundings, minus the work of the pressure forces, during a reversible transformation of the system from the same initial state to the same final state.[2]. Converts Pyruvate to Acetyl-Coa. 1 of the key steps to regulating glycolysis; inhibited by ATP and activated by ADP; phosphoylated fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1,6-phosphate. MCQ 12: Microbiology Questions of CSIR NET Examination (Advanced) More MCQs in Easybiologyclass. Circle all correct answers. Diagrams. Identify which statements are … lactic acid fermentation, 3 products, only 1 ATP per glucose, glucose--> CO2, acetaldehyde, pyruvate, a metabolic pathway that generates NADPH and five-carbon sugars such as ribose 5-phosphate from glucose 6-phosphate; also refered to as hexose monophosphate shunt and the phosphogluconate pathway / it includes oxidative reactions which produce NADPH and ribose 5-phosphates as well as nonoxidative reactions which together convert five-carbon sugar phosphates to gluconeogenic precursors of glucose 6-phosphate, 1:The Bifidobacteria use a unique pathway of hexose catabolism, which produces primarily acetate and lactate. to generate metabolic intermediates not supplied from EMP PATHWAY. Choose from 500 different sets of microbial physiology flashcards on Quizlet. 1) Hexokinase :This enzyme is involved in the conversion of glucose into glucose-6-phosphate G6P. CsrA is a regulator of carbohydrate metabolism that affects glycogen biosynthesis, glycogen degradation, gluconeogenesis , and glycolysis. It looks like your browser needs an update. Energy-coupling mechanism that uses the energy of hydrogen ion (H+) gradients across membranes to drive cellular work, such as the phosphorylation of ATP; powers most ATP synthesis in cells. Dihydrolipoyl transacetylase (or dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase) is an enzyme component of the multienzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Sulfur in the environment is available as an oxidized compound, sulfate. Chromosome replicates.... 2. In the 3rd step of the TCA cycle, this enzyme is used to create alpha-ketoglutarate from isocitrate. Nitrogenase is inactivated by oxygen, so the heterocyst must create a microanaerobic environment. It is designed to facilitate the rescue and recycling of ribosomes that have become 'stalled'[2] in a ubiquitous quality-control process referred to as trans-translation, pyruvate + HCO3- + ATP \longrightarrow oxaloacetate + ADP + Pi + H2O, Transaminase moves the amino group from aspartate and attaches it to alpha ketogluterate.---> KEY ENZYME, Nitrogen incorporated in cell through trans-amination rxns, catalyzes attachment of amino acids to their particular tRNAs, produces charged tRNA (translation), Eukaryotes metabolize Glucose through EMP & HMP, Glucose transported into cell via Group Translocation (E. coli), Cleaves fructose 1,6 diphosphate into 2 molecules of triose phosphate. an enzyme complex, unique to certain prokaryotes, that reduces N2 to NH3, The enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to form fructose-1-6-bisphosphate in the third step of glycolysis. Catabolite Control Protein A (CcpA) is a master regulator of carbon metabolism in gram-positive bacteria. glycolysis, TCA cycle, HMP, EMP, Nitrogen fixation and DNA replication in microbes, first set of reactions in cellular respiration during which 1 molecule of glucose, a 6-carbon compound, is transformed into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid, a 3-carbon compound, provides source of NADPH from an abundantly available G6P (NADPH is required for reductive rxns, e.g, glutathione reduction inside RBC), glucose to pyruvate using different enzymes than glycolysis. Bacterial Physiology Test 2. This pathway is also important for protecting yeast from oxidative stress, since NADPH is an essential cofactor for glutathione- and thioredoxin-dependent enzymes that defend cells against oxidative damage, a complex formed by ribosomes simultaneously translating mRNA.