The opening of the Assembly was delayed several times to accommodate him after he had grown ill from overwork, but on 13 February 1787, he died. Vergennes also had to deal with the consequences of the theft of the Sultan's flagship by Christian prisoners, who took it to Malta. France received Tobago, several trading posts in Africa, and the end of trading restrictions at Dunkirk. A fleet under Admiral d'Estaing sailed to assist the rebels but failed in attacks on British forces in Rhode Island and Savannah, placing significant strains on Franco-American relations. [3], The objective of Chavigny and Vergennes in Lisbon was to keep Portugal from entering the War of the Austrian Succession on the side of Britain, a task that proved relatively easy as the Portuguese had little interest in joining the war. Charles Gravier, Count of Vergennes (French pronunciation: ​[vɛʁ.ʒɛn]; 29 December 1719 – 13 February 1787) was a French statesman and diplomat. Vergennes's efforts to convince the Ottomans to intervene in the election were undermined by a failure to settle on a single French candidate for the throne, and both France and the Ottomans were eventually forced to acknowledge Stanislas as king. Charles Gravier, Count of Vergennes born in 1719 in Dijon. Charles Gravier, Count of Vergennes (20 December 1717 – 13 February 1787) was a French statesman and diplomat. Newcastle was ultimately forced to dissolve the Congress and abandon the election. [8] Vergennes faced an immediate challenge, as the British were planning to have an Austrian candidate Archduke Joseph elected as King of the Romans, a position that designated the next Holy Roman Emperor. Jean GRAVIER de VERGENNES, marquis de Vergennes 1718-1794 Married 30 May 1746, Meursanges (21), toJeanne Claude CHEVIGNARD 1727-1784 with Théodore GRAVIER de VERGENNES 1744-1755 Anne Marie Thérèse GRAVIER de VERGENNES 1748-1803 Married 6 October 1767 to Paul Louis de GANAY 1723-1802 with : With France’s economic situation now perilous she was unable to intervene in the Dutch crisis of 1787 when Prussia put down a revolt of pro French Patriots. French resources were increasingly strained and unable to support the nation's traditional role in Europe. Widowed at the age of 24, she had become the ambassador’s mistress and bore him two children before their marriage. He was largely unsympathetic to the Dutch, believing that their disappointing effort in the war did not justify his championing their goals at the peace table. He did not want his strategy of sending French and Spanish forces against Britain in the Americas to be deflected by troops and resources being diverted to Central Europe. This person, by nature timid, was fearful of giving offence to the court and great men: he wanted vigour and genius, but was in other respects a man of good sense and an enlightened understanding. A dramatic reversal of Russian policies following the succession of Peter III forced Vergennes to return to his previous policy of encouraging anti-Russian sentiment, only to change again when Peter was overthrown by his wife, Catherine. She was the widow of Francesco Testa (ca. Free for commercial use, no attribution required. In October 1781, the French force played a key role in the surrender of a British army at Yorktown. [15], Vergennes's task was to try to persuade the Ottomans to counter the Russian threat to Poland, working in conjunction with Prussia. [2] In 1739, at the age of twenty, he accepted an offer to go to Lisbon as an assistant to Théodore Chevignard de Chavigny who was mutually referred to as his "uncle", but was in fact a more distant relative. His family were members of the Second Estate. In 1777 he went further and said he would formally recognise America. He would also oversee the negotiations which saw France lose much of her overseas territory to Britain at the end of the Seven Years War. It promised to be considerably more difficult and expensive than he had hoped. Vergennes believed the Dutch were most valuable as neutrals, as they could supply France through the British blockade, than as allies. after Charles VII's sudden death in 1745, they strove to help his successor Maximilian III but were unable to prevent him from losing his capital at Munich and making peace with the Austrians at the Treaty of Füssen. After assisting a pro-French faction to take power in Sweden, he returned home and was promoted to foreign minister. His family were members of the country aristocracy. Vergennes pressed the Louis XVI for a formal alliance between the two countries which the King would eventually grant. [27] The Dutch entry into the war placed further strains on the French treasury, as they searched for finances to support the Dutch war effort. [26] In the wake of the Battle of Saratoga, a defeat for the British, Vergennes feared that the British and colonists might reconcile. Taken from Memoirs Relating to the French Revolution by the Marquis de Bouille, Cadell and Davies, London (1797) p46. This presented a major problem to Vergennes, as his treaty of alliance with the Spanish had committed the French to keep fighting until Gibraltar was under Spanish control. The Austrians had supplied the Emperor's for centuries until 1740, when Charles VII of Bavaria had been elected triggering the War of the Austrian Succession. The French saw the proposal as part of a scheme by the British to boost their own power in Germany. In April 1782 at the Battle of the Saintes, the French fleet suffered a major defeat and de Grasse was captured by the British. Vergennes also struggled on the domestic front against what he saw as the dangerous view of. He briefly entertained the hope that the British war against the Dutch would provoke the Russians to enter the war against them, but Catherine declined to act. Vergennes also struggled on the domestic front against what he saw as the dangerous view of Necker the finance minister. Vergennes encouraged King Louis to sponsor expeditions to Indochina. Despite their close ties, the two states had no formal alliance. When Chavigny met Louis XV at Versailles, he lobbied for Vergennes to be given an appointment. [25] In 1775 the first fighting broke out, and in July 1776, the colonists declared independence. Other historians believe that his support for a republican insurrection and the enormous cost which France incurred in the war, caused the French Revolution, which brought down the French monarchy and the system he served.