4. If this idea were visualized, it would appear as concentric circles—not as separate but overlapping circles. Thus no one leadership style is optimal in all situations. Peplau’s Interpersonal Relations Theory This theory focuses on the nurse-client relationship and the therapeutic process that takes place. Certain pressures influence the role of the manager and demand new skill sets to facilitate clinical work. The IOM has raised awareness about patient safety and quality of care issues, and the Magnet Recognition Program® is one evidence-based nursing response. It can be part of a formal organizational managerial position, or it can arise spontaneously in any group. A distinction can be made between leadership and management roles. The chaos and complexity of the seismic shifts in health care structure, delivery, form, technology, and content have made visible the urgent need for leaders to emerge, mobilize, and encourage followers. Situations in which members of a group are not accustomed to working together or do not hold shared expectations frequently lead to conflict. Leadership is an activity of human engagement and a relationship experience founded in trust, communication, inspiration, action, and “servanthood.” The leadership role is so important because it embodies commitment and forward-reaching action. Relate leadership and management theory to nursing leadership and management activities. Crucible experiences can occur from positive or negative triggers, but leaders see them as opportunities for reinvention. These dimensions are similar to the authoritarian (or task) and democratic (or relationship) ideas of the leader behavior continuum. In times of chaos, complexity, and change, leadership is essential to provide the guidance, direction, and sense of stability needed to ensure followers’ effectiveness and satisfaction. As situations become more complex, leadership becomes more difficult. Leaders need to be concerned about both tasks to be accomplished and human relationships in groups and organizations. 3. When the problem no longer is just the need to get the group moving but also includes solving numerous interpersonal conflicts, a relationship-oriented leader is better matched to the situation. It is possible that leaders can create a negative climate that becomes destructive to the group. Position power refers to power that is conferred on the leader by the organization as a result of the assigned job. The two major leadership terms are task behavior and relationship behavior, and a leader’s leadership style is some combination of task and relationship behavior. Men tend to spend their time on meetings and tasks requiring immediate attention, focusing on completion of tasks and achievement of goals. 2. From an early awareness of the leader’s need to be concerned about both tasks and human relationships (output and people) sprang a long history of leadership theories that can be grouped as trait, attitudinal, and situational (Hersey et al., 2013). A leader using this style may seem to be apathetic. The nurse leader combines clinical, administrative, financial, and operational skills to solve problems in the care environment so that nurses can provide cost-effective care in a way that is satisfying and health promoting for patients and clients. Relationship management: Use of effective communication with others to disarm conflict, and the ability to develop the emotional maturity of team members. By contrast, leadership approaches described by men tend to be influenced by the military and participating in team sports. Nursing has drawn from both classic and contemporary thinkers. After choosing a channel, the sender transmits a message.